Discussion of four items from the management discussion of the firm that support the conclusion formed in your discussion of the financial results.
Much of this course has concentrated on learning the financial statements, primarily because there was not an accounting prerequisite. Because of this concentration, you may find this assignment challenging. However, if you understand the financial statements, then the horizontal and vertical analysis should (hopefully) be rather intuitive. For example, if you see sales rise by 20%, then shouldn’t you also see net income rise by 20% or more if the managers are effective at controlling costs? If you see sales rise by 20% and assets rise by 40%, we have to ask why this is happening. It would appear that assets have risen too far given the sales that are generated from those assets—why did this occur? You may have to research that type of question and discuss it in your analysis.
The link below demonstrates the completion of vertical and horizontal analysis on Nike using Excel. Dr. Jill Bale, the course writer, demonstrates the use of Excel equations and discusses some of the issues you may face when working on the spreadsheet for your portfolio project. If you would like some additional guidance on the spreadsheet requirement of the portfolio project, please watch the video. Note that the video does not discuss adding the 8 required ratios to your spreadsheet; however, you are required to submit your company ratios on this spreadsheet as well as the vertical/horizontal analysis. As always, your instructor is available for follow-up questions.
Bale, J. (2013, August 19). Demonstration of Vertical/Horizontal Analysis using Excel [Video file]. Retrieved from http://camrelay1.unl.edu/inbox/jbale2/Nike_Horizontal_and_Vertical_analysis_-_MP4_with_Smart_Player_(Large)_-_20130819_10.10.04AM.html
I’d suggest that you start your ratio analysis with the four ratios found in the DuPont equation. If you discover a weakness in one component of the DuPont ratios, then it would make sense to look at ratios that are closely related to the troublesome ratio. For example, if you discover that the asset turnover is declining over time, then take a look at some related ratios such as the inventory turnover rate or the average collection period. If you discover that the equity multiplier is increasing (indicating greater reliance on debt), then look at some related ratios such as the debt ratio or Times Interest Earned.
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