Discussion Questions: (Remember: You may use ONE of these or any concept that you find in the chapter


  • Each discussion should be 300 words or more for original posts
  • Each discussion must discuss an original issue from the readings and should respond to another post.
  • APA in-text (Links to an external site.) citations and references are required for any external and textbook material provided. Excessive quotations (more quotes than your own words) will not award points.
  • Each weekly discussion is worth two points.

Discussion Questions: (Remember: You may use ONE of these or any concept that you find in the chapter. You may start a new topic or respond to the existing one.)

  1. Differential Association Theory (DAT) is a learning theory that was created by Edwin Sutherland. Provide an example of a situation (it can be real life scenario) where DAT can be applied to explain the situation. Create a narrative of the situation using tenets from DAT.
  2. How is Differential Association Theory (DAT) used today in criminal justice? What programs may be a direct or indirect result of implications from DAT?
  3. What is Anomie Theory? Apply the tenets of Anomie Theory to a real-world event that may have previously reached a cessation or may be currently ongoing.
  4. Considering Merton’s Modes of Adaptation, what mode of adaptation do you feel is the most prevalent and the most taxing on the collective society? What should be done to ameliorate this strain?
  5. In the early 20th century many subculture theorists focused on delinquent subcultures in adolescent youth (e.g. juvenile gangs). How would this research manifest itself today in the greater Miami area? Is there a prevalence of youth gangs? If so, what should be done that has not been done already to address these issues?
  6. What are some examples of programs, infrastructure, laws, etc. in Florida that may have their implications derived from Differential Opportunity Theory?
  7. How may some theories from various Subculture Theorists be outdated when applied to contemporary societal conditions in the US? State the theory(s) and explain why they may lack robustness in explaining the current societal state. How could these theories be adjusted to accommodate the more contemporaneous conditions of modern society?


200 words or more for supplemental responses. Just “I agree” or “I disagree” or “it is a good point” etc. are not acceptable discussion posts. Please write actual facts on the students post.

This is the post =

In general, do you think that criminological theories are developed within their societal contexts? Meaning they do not have the same theoretical power in explaining criminality/deviance outside their respective societal context. In other words, could criminological theories have the same theoretical power in other countries in the world? Explain why or why not supported with examples.

Criminological theories could very well be applicable in other collective groups and societies, outside of the social construct where it was developed. As human nature and psychology is universal, we may adapt differently depending on the kind of environment we are in – in the case of Symbolic Interaction, the social and interpersonal associations that are created by an individual. But the concept of response is the same across the board. 

For example, Social Learning Theory, it tells us that people will mimic or repeat the behaviors of those around them if they think the behavior results in a reward or a lack of discipline. “Adding to F. Skinner’s earlier version of operant learning theory by including imitation and modeling of behavior” (Williams et. al, 2018) Essentially, saying that people will do things that get them what they want in a way that keeps them from being repudiated by an authority.

In the case of our president, the things that Trump says and the gestures he makes tells us that it’s okay to lack civility and treat others as less than yourself for any reason at any time. That wealth overrides law. Individual more than the whole. His behavior has only emboldened people to feel as though acting with no empathy or sympathy is how one “wins.” In my only partially-educated opinion, the people who are voting for Trump might not be looking at the big picture. They just want to win, as an individual, instead of as a collective. Nation divided not united.    

Focusing on self-interest, behavior that is taught will result in reward. 

And this is a behavior that crosses all borders, that can be seen from Boris leaving the EU in seeking to make the U.K independent of a collective in its own self-pursuits. Or Jair Bolsonaro of Brazil seeking to gain profits at environmental consequences. Which leads to a ripple effect of deviant behavior and response across every culture and continent. 

Works cited 

Williams, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (2018). Criminological theory (Seventh ed.). New York:

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