One of the fundamental aspects to consider for a presidential leadership is governance. This underscores the measures taken by presidents focused on shaping the lumbering federal bureaucracy in order to address the deadliest threat associated with disasters. In the recent past, emergency management has become a critical issue of concern where professionals among other related agencies, local government tribes, FEMA, non-profit organization and institution of higher learning have taken an active role in responding to disasters in a series of initiatives such as accreditations, certifications, and standards something that had for long been neglected prior to the presidency of Bill Clinton. In the years between the 1960s and 1970s, there was no centralized emergency management system; it was until the year 1979 when FEMA was established. In the 1980s the functionality and effectiveness response of FEMA had not been tested by disaster though it was entangled by the major scandals in the country which came to be known as parking lot and backwater for the political appointees. In 1992, government preparedness through its agencies was tested and it was noticed that it took like five days for the federal troops to arrive at the emergency areas following Hurricane Andrew in 1992. It was in 1993 when the Clinton administration recognized the political value of reforming government agencies responsible for emergency response such as FEMA, which marked the appointment of James Lee as the director. President Clinton is credited to lessening bureaucracy associated with government agencies equipping them with professional staffs and emphasized on working with the committee as the measure for disaster preparedness.
There are two primary scales that are used to measure earthquakes including; Mercalli scale and Richter scale. The most commonly used in the U.S is the Richter scale but the worldwide scientist uses the Mercalli scale. In the year 1979, the successor of the Richter scale was introduced named the moment magnitude scale. This scale compares the energy released during the earthquake depending on the moment of the earthquake. The measuring scale for Hurricanes is known as Saffir-Simpson and is used to measure the intensity.
The recent used measuring scale for Tornados is known as ‘Enhanced Fujita Scale’. The Fujita scale was invented in the year 1971 by Dr. Theodore, at this time the original scale was 1, which classified or categorized the area and intensity of Tornados. It also estimated the speed of the wind and the associated damage. This formed the standard by which Tornados were being measured in the U.S. However, following certain incidences of tornados including that of Moore, Oklahoma in the year 1999 and Texas in the year 1997, there was a need to reform the Fujita scale since research review demonstrated that the strength of wind or the structures destroyed were either underestimated or overestimated. In the year 2007, Enhanced Fujita scale came to affect. However, the new scale needed to be configured in order to conform to the order of the measurement. This called for a collection of methodological data without revamping the scale in totality.
During the emergency response, SMAUG model is used as the bases for identifying and prioritizing the hazardous risks that are attributed with the technological and natural threats. SMAUG is an effective tool that set standards for seriousness, urgency, growth, acceptability, and manageability, which are the criteria used in prioritizing the hazardous risks. Through the use of the aforementioned criteria, this tool addresses the risks of the associated hazard by suggesting the effective mitigation, response, reduction as well as recovery approaches that will be used.
The Sea, Lake, Overland, Surges, and Hurricanes (SLOSH) model is a computerized numerical model which is used in estimating the surge and heights which originates from predicted, hypothetical or historical hurricanes. To achieve this, the model accounts for various aspects including the track data, forward speed, size, and atmospheric pressure. Essentially, there are three models which can be used in surge estimation including; deterministic approach, composite approach, and probabilistic approach. Since the model is computerized, it makes it efficient and faster /ideal operating system which is used in resolving flows through gaps and barriers as well as models which profound passes amid the water bodies. It also helps to resolve the overtopping and inland inundation barrier system roads and levees. It also depicts anomalies at the initial water levels and thus it is an explicit model used in the astronomic tide.