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(TCO 1) What is the difference among food poisoning, food allergy, food infection, and food intoxication?

Food poisoning involves eating spoilt or contaminated food. Food allergy often means that progression of a disease as a result of coming into contact with specific kind of food. Food infection refers to getting in contact with food containing a bacteria hence infecting the body after consumption. And food intoxication refers to any food containing toxins which cause illness after consumption.

(TCO 2) Besides being involved in the synthesis of DNA and the prevention of neural defects, folate is necessary for a few other things in the body. Please explain and make sure to elaborate on folate’s relationship with other B-vitamins and heart disease

The relation between foliate and B12 is referred to as a foliate cycle. Some foliate sources include vegetables, fruits, whole grains such as beans, cereals, and some fortified grains. Also, foliate play a primary role in cardiovascular disease prevention. Foliate is known as a good component and a pathway to the production of Nitric Oxide a molecule that aid in the functionality of the arteries (Shils & Shike, 2006). In case of low levels of folate may result in low levels of Nitric Oxide that may cause vascular damage that results in heart complications. 

(TCO 3) Please explain the term irradiation and the pros and cons of this practice.

Irradiation is the process that involves sterilization using gamma and various another form of rays and radiation without impacting the radiation to the type of food in treatment. Irradiation gets rid of pathogens although the food used in case its frozen remain so while raw food remains raw even after irradiation.


The bacteria left after irradiation normally are unable to thrive or reproduce and food can be well preserved. Also, the food has shown to be safe after the process for those who use irradiated foods. Similarly, few nutrients such as vitamin E, A, and k get affect by the process.


Some food can be contaminated even after going through the process as a result of improper handling and preparation. For consumers, they need to be careful regardless of the process the food had undergone during preparation.

 (TCO 4) The DASH diet was designed to assess the effects of certain foods and certain portions of food on high blood pressure. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is similar to My Pyramid, but there are a few differences. Please explain the differences.

The My Pyramid is a diet that uses a plan for it to be built. A DASH diet is specific only for those with hypertension issues. The DASH diet has low sodium as compared to the My Pyramid diet and the specification of food in DASH diet is applicable in all groups of food but not in My Pyramid diet. The DASH diet plan involves foods high in fiber, low fats, with 8 to 10 fruits and veggies servings and the My Pyramid diet have only 5 serving per day. Similarly, The DASH diet have low dairy serving compared to My Pyramid diet.

(TCO 5) Describe the glycemic index and glycemic load, and name some high, medium, and low glycemic index foods. Why is this information important?

The glycemic index is the measurement of foods that comprise of carbohydrates and the level of effect this has on the blood sugars. The glycemic load is the number of carbohydrates consumed by a type of food then multiplied by the carbohydrates present in that food.

High glycemic food includes bagel, whole bread, white bread, and oatmeal.

Medium food includes white rice, whole grain rice, watermelons, and pineapples.

Low glycemic food includes veggies such as peppers, broccoli, celery, and tomatoes. Also, milk, yogurt, and soy milk.

The glycemic index aid with the production of insulin after consumption of food with a high index which in turn shuttles the blood to the cells and used as energy. The glycemic load help with an indication of the effect food has after glucose response in one’s body. Glycemic index and the load are considered with a person suffering from diabetes who should take low glycemic foods (Shils & Shike, 2006).

(TCO 6) Although BMI is considered an essential tool with regard to measuring one’s overall health, there are limitations to its use. Please define BMI, why it is valuable as a measurement tool, and include a discussion on limitations to its use.

BMI is the measure of the body fats basing on someone’s weight and height. BMI gives the body fats estimation without involving professionals. This limit other health factors as only weight is measured. The calculation uses Quetelet’s index which measures if a person might be at risk for chronic diseases. Similarly, BMI cannot measure fats or where this fat is located, and also muscle loss, and metabolic differences in people. However, BMI tool can access a group of many people while considering their weight measurements.

 (TCO 7) Nutrition and medical professionals are concerned about the heavy consumption of soft drinks, as it may be detrimental to bone health. There are several theories associated with soft drink consumption, so please list the theories and provide an explanation as to why these theories on soft drink consumption can affect bone health.

Cola and milk

The choices of people on cola over healthier drinks such is milk affects the bone density. Cola is mostly preferred as a result of sugar present in it as compared to healthy drinks. Cola doesn’t contain calcium causing the deficiency. The theory concludes that cola doesn’t affect the bones directly rather the choice of replacing milk with cola does cause the bone effects.

The Caffeine in Cola

The presence of caffeine in cola cause a decrease in bone density due to the production of acidic acid that leach calcium out of the bones and can also lead to diuresis a condition that can cause calcium excretion through urine. This reduces calcium which lower bone density.

Phosphoric acid in cola

Consumption of phosphoric acid in cola reduce the absorption of calcium and magnesium. The bone mass reduction in the process too as a result of acidity caused by phosphoric acid intake in cola. According to the research, the theory says that acid adversely acidifies the blood causing its neutralization that stripes calcium out of the body (Shils & Shike, 2006).

(TCO 8) Water not only quenches our thirst, but it also performs a number of functions that are critical to life. Please list water’s many functions.

Water is critical in our health and keeps us alive. All the cells in our body use water and in case of dehydration, our body can suffer from shock as a result. Our body organs use water to function and without it, they can all shut down as the blood is blood volume would go down, temperature, lubrication, and fluid the balance which helps with body response.

 (TCO 10) What is the female athlete triad and why is it so dangerous?

Female athlete triad is a condition caused by abnormal menstruation it’s absence, osteoporosis, and eating disorders. The condition can cause overall body damage if extreme measures are taken as engaging in improper calories intake, and extreme exercising.

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